African Traditional Religion regards disability as a curse from the Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. The article examines the difference between the practice of morality and the science of ethics as well as ethical theories and traditions. The ownership of land by our ancestors is the main link between politics, religion and spirituality in Zimbabwe. Note: News of the problems in South African hospitals reached a Catholic priest studying for a degree in sacred theology at St. Paul's University in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. African spirituality, sometimes referred to as African Traditional Religion used to pervade all aspects of life. At an international level, Zimbabwe is a State Party to a number of regional and international conventions and treaties that support gender equality in particular the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women- the CEDAW and the Optional Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa Irish education at second level before turning to the results of the survey. textbooks do not support it because they are centered on Christianity. The above types of activities are goals intended to foster conflict resolution at international level. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. Susana learning will make students unsaturated to receive material from teachers. with or arising out of the use of this material. Towards Conflict Transformation and Management skills’ training in Zimbabwean Primary School Teacher Education for effective Teaching, Learning and Peace in Zimbabwean Primary School: A Case Study of Mkoba Teachers’ Training College. In this book, the author engages with Banana’s written works and makes critical observations regarding the call to re-write the Bible. The syllabus should be done, in consultation with stakeholders. ZIMBABWE ANNIEGRACE MAPANGISANA HLATYWAYO 207520221 Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (School of Religion, Philosophy and Classics), in the College of Humanities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. One study (abstract) revealed that the teaching of this subject faces challenges in primary schools. , edited by K. Klostermaier and L. Hurtado Atlanta: . In addition, a call is made forAnican scholars of religion to participate in methodological debates. Is it possible to be accommodative of other religions as a school principal? leading and following, just to mention a few. I use critical emancipation research as lens to interrogate religious leaders as regime enablers. In Zimbabwe, there is evidence that religions like African Traditional Religion are looked down upon. The vadzimu are believed to constitute an invisible community within the community of the living, always around their descendants, caring for them and participating in their joys and sorrows. examples used come from the Shona indigenous religions of Zimbabwe. For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. in the post-independent Zimbabwe, like during the colonial times, Christianity is still being associated with civilization whereas African, Traditional Religion is associated with backwardness. The ancestors are without question the most prominent aspect of African religion, in fact, they are the heart of the African spirit world. This beats one’s imagination to the core, especially given the fact that the religio-tribal considerationsappear to be the major driving force. The colonisation of Africa brought many changes to African traditional models of justice to the extent that resolving conflicts using indigenous systems has become a problem that needs to be researched about (Ndiaye, 2012). This will enable you to realise the impact of indigenous religions on HIV&AIDS. A descriptive survey design was used. 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. The Ngomakurira Mountain in the Chinamhora Communal Land. 2 Wrong ideas: African Religion is ancestor worship. traditional stories, poems, and drama where necessary. This sampling procedure, was adopted because it enhances non-cohesive participation, which is. The African traditional Recommendations for effective teaching were made. London: Heinmann Educational Books Ltd. ————. There is indeed a thin line between the sacred. The ancestors are without question the most prominent aspect of African religion, in fact, they are the heart of the African spirit world. These are the deceased ancestors. The syllabus stresses the importance of, moral principles and religious beliefs in a socialist and egalitarian soci-, Junior (grades 3–7) section is yet to be revised as it is still functionally, The Infants (grades 1–2) section of the syllabus gives a green light, to the teaching of African Traditional Religion using the child-book-, child approach. 1985. In Zimbabwe there are no studies aimed at establishing the aspects in the curriculum that could be carriers of conflict resolution skills development and the gaps to be filled so that the curriculum could be used as a tool for conflict resolution skill's development except studies by. All at the Great, Chitando, E. 1998. Thus, the teacher must, be a specialist in charge and he or she must be aware of change as an, In general, African Traditional Religion lacks recognized written, textual traditions and this makes it difficult to persist in its teaching, and analysis. Spirit mediums communicate with the vadzimu on behalf of the people. ——— 1985. of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. So that students will more easily understand the material delivered. Many researchers, such as ter Haar et al. differs in African countries was mentioned. This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. 3 (2007). The, most notable ones are that the syllabus is functionally christocentric. philosophical appraisal of African culture and values is not only apt and timely, but also appropriate. In this study, the design, was used in order to determine attitudes, challenges, and opportunities, in the teaching of African Traditional Religion in Zimbabwe’s primary, schools. Seven years later, that party and the Zimbabwe Africa People's Union merged. It is the author's view that there is considerable teaching of ethics by religion teachers at second level schools in Ireland. Although a substantial portion of the Zimbabwean population today belongs to a Christian congregation or church, people retain many of the traditional customs and beliefs in traditional religion such as Shona or Ndebele religions. In those cases in which anthropological contents have been or are being treated on certain Secondary School subjects (such as Society, Culture and Religion or Education for Citizenry), what kind of teachers are in charge of these subjects? Further to that, the study also sought to find, out the challenges faced by the primary school teachers in teaching, African Traditional Religion in the schools, and the opportunities in, The study sought to establish the extent to which African Tradi-, tional Religion is being taught in the primary schools in Zimbabwe, and the challenges faced by teachers in the incorporation of African, Traditional Religion in the teaching of Religious and Moral Educa-, tion. the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe and was a visiting lecturer at Great Zimbabwe University in 2006. 3.1 African Traditional Religion as a New Religion 4. To enter the spirit world, trancing has to be initiated by a shaman through the hunting of Power animal. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any, representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to, date. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The difference, in emphasis between the Infants and Junior syllabi is that the former, was revised in 1981 in consultation with other stakeholders, whereas. Once it became clear the end was not re-writing the Bible, this work moved on to consider alternative means to achieving the same end. Religious Education and Societal Development: The Nigerian Context. The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. In Our Mission to Teach, a Pastoral Statement on, Education (1987, 16–17), the Zimbabwe Catholic Bishops lent their, support when they agreed that: “It is culture that gives the country, It is worthy to note that it is essential to build a new nation on, firm moral principles, which could not be achieved if the children of. We shall try to illustrate that African culture and values can be appraised from 1Editor’s note: See the comments on … The meaning in Islam itself has also been taught about the method of teaching, because the Islamic religion is actually not just a system of theology alone, but it is a complete civilization. Magesa Laurenti, African Religion (New York: Orbis Books,1997), 172-173. RelZim.org articles about traditional religions in Zimbabwe. Ibid. In Zimbabwe, San religious concepts are similar to those of South Africa, however the eland is replaced by the elephant and other animals. The Relationship between God and People in Shona Traditional Religion . Strengths-based practice, which recognises African traditional belief systems as a source of resilience, should be recognised. Contemporary African culture is a mixture of traditional elements and alien features. When Ludwig got to However, 5 of, the 176 questionnaires were incomplete and they were not considered, Quantitative data collected through the questionnaire were pre-, sented in a frequency table (see Table 1). Global Worship and Communion Miracle Service, Spiritual Spectacles Night of Remembrance, Video: Mudiwa Mutandwa performs ‘Ndaita Mari’, Video: Zim Anglicans return to Harare cathedral, Video: A walk through St. Paul´s Secondary High School in Musami, Prophet Freddy hosts prophetic conference, Pastor in court for fondling congregant’s private parts. It was discovered, through personal observations and through the tools ofanalytical and deductive reasoning via library research methodology, that certain aspects of certain religiousteachings have great positive impact on societal cohesion which leads to development in the Nigerian society whilesome others rather sow the seed of discord, injustice, hate and rancor that have led to killings, oppressions andupsurges that have characterized the Nigerian social space for decades on end and have drastically militated againstsocial development of Nigeria. The following people presented papers and participated in the discussion at the workshop: Dr Farid Esack, SA … a method of gathering original data by assessing opinions, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors in order to describe existing conditions to, determine the relations between variables. There is the danger that students might absolutise the method. Future studies should attempt to employ a probability sample, to establish the nature of perceptions of the teaching of African Tra-, ditional Religion in the primary school, as the use of a non-probability. The Muslim community consists primarily of South Asian immigrants (Indian and Pakistani), a small number of indigenous Zimbabweans, and a very small number of North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. to handle a relatively large number of participants at the same time. Teachers lack adequate information on African Tradi-, tional Religion as there are no African Traditional Religion written, In view of the aforementioned findings and conclusions, the study, recommends that African Traditional Religion should be taken seri-, ously because it is a source of the people’s identity. On one hand, it, was in recognition of the multi-religious nature of the new sovereign, and democratic society, whereas on the other it was aimed at cham-, pioning the teaching of African cultural beliefs and practices to its, future leaders. A descriptive survey design was used. After making a few corrections on the, questionnaire, the researchers then administered them to 176 re-, spondents, which comprised both Bachelor of Education (In-Service), Primary and Early Childhood Development groups. Thus the Infant syllabus reflects the new dispensation and as-, pirations of the post-colonial Zimbabwe, whereas the Junior syllabus, still harbors the aspirations of the colonial masters. This book argues that re-writing was proposed as a means to an end by Banana. Quite a number of views were expressed as to why African Traditional, Religion is sidelined in Religious and Moral Education lessons. Every year towards the beginning of the rainy season, Chief Hobodo, as the custodian of Kalanga religion and customs, sends a delegation of amawosana (people with rain-making spirits) to the Njelele Shrine to go and ask for some rains from Mwali (a spirit speaking from a rock in Njelele) on behalf of the community. For years, the study of African religions has presented challenges both to the students and instructors. N’angas (traditional healers)are consulted for their political and religious powers along with their healing powers.The Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers Association (ZINATHA)  is officially recognized by the government and has a constitution along with departments of education and research. There are a wide variety of Protestant Churches in Zimbabwe, including the Anglican, Methodist, Evangelical, Lutheran, Pentecostal, Reformed, Jehovah Witness and Seventh-Day Adventist churches. Chrispen Matsika, University of Massachusetts Amherst. African traditional religion. Religion and have supportive Teachers’ Resource books. In Shona religion, in addition to the guarding characteristics of the vadzimu, there are also avenging or evil spirits, ngozi, and witches who communicate with them. Haralambos, M., Heald, R., and Holborn, M. 2004. The study made use of the descriptive survey. In 1795, the London Missionary Society was founded to promote the spread of Protestantism into Africa and Asia. At the time of writing, Father Bonaventure Turyomumazima of Uganda was preparing a doctoral dissertation on the relationship between traditional African healing practices, western medicine and religious belief. Mbiti, J. S. 1969. Grounded in the traditional Shona religious landscape, and from a phenomenological perspective, the study utilised a qualitative survey research design. The present research therefore, aims at bridging this void by focusing on the teaching of African. In instances where there may be written material on specific aspects of indigenous religions, I encourage It is hard to destroy its beliefs. Religions and moral education syllabus. author uses three data collection techniques. 1985. Strengths-based practice, which recognises African traditional belief systems as a source of resilience, should be recognised. Both are called ancestral spirits. traditional religion in order to promote Christian faith among Adventists in Zimbabwe. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. Chrispen Matsika, University of Massachusetts Amherst. In fact, a sizeable number (50.9%) indicated that, African Traditional Religion is in agreement with Christianity in many, respects. and encourages national unity, and spiritual and moral development. Respondent's Understanding of African Traditional Religion, All content in this area was uploaded by Joel Marashe on Sep 01, 2015, This article was downloaded by: [University of Pretoria], [Joel MARASHE], Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales R. Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, Publication details, including instructions for. The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. I strongly encourage you to utilise the religious beliefs and practices of your own community. In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in This study examined traditional Shona beliefs and practices in light of HIV/AIDS in the rural communities of the Chipinge District in Zimbabwe. A 2006 amendment to the colonial Witchcraft Suppression Act (WSA) criminalized witchcraft practices only if intended to cause harm. The newly independent nation was in search of its own, genuine culture. Abstract. The teacher and, the pupil alike are thus forced to look at what people do as well as what, they say (Hexham, 1989). As such, grade 7 examinations in Content should include items on African Tra-, ditional Religion so that it could be taken seriously at the teaching, stage. The study re-. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). With the attitude of teachers essentially positive in the teaching, of African Traditional Religion, there is a need to have a support-. It critiques the missionary/European epistemological hegemony that continues to render RE a colonial rather than a postcolonial project. This study sought to establish the extent to which African, Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges, faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. Zimbabwe, formally referred to as the Republic of Zimbabwe is a landlocked nation situated in southern region of Africa between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers. The Zimbabwe African National Unity party led by Robert Mugabe won the majority of seats and took over the government in April 1980. The participants were drawn from experienced practicing primary, school teachers who were doing In-Service Bachelor of Education, (Primary) and Early Childhood Development at the Great Zimbabwe, University. Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. Religions and moral education syllabus. More stories. I strongly encourage you to utilise the religious beliefs and practices of your own community. As such teachers see, no point in teaching African Traditional Religion just for the sake, of teaching, as the education system is fast becoming examination, Some respondents indicated that African Traditional Religion is, associated with demons. Pollard, A. and S. Tann. Religions of the world view disability differently. This means that the way they teach it is unlikely, to excite or motivate their pupils. THERE is a problem with the way the oppression of women and girls is explained which, if not challenged, will mean that gender will become a racket, an industry, without even reducing, let alone stopping, the degradation of the majority of women. “Traditional marriage cannot be understood outside traditional religion and Bantu culture.” According to Dr Paul Kyalo in a paper titled A Reflection on the African Traditional Values of Marriage and Sexuality, the African traditional marriage system had solutions to many of the problems that todays’couples and families face. The available textbooks on Religious and Moral Educa-, they are biased toward Christianity. The. 1992, 43), thus there is need to, decolonize the African religious mindset so that it can appreciate the. ¿Por qué no se incluye esta disciplina en los planes de estudio de las etapas previas a la Universidad? It is also important for social workers to recognise African taboos, traditional social safety nets, communitarianism, In-Service Teachers’ views and conceptions on culture and mathematics education in rural schools. This theory allows me to name, expose and challenge oppression and injustice in and exclusion from social structures. The teaching of culture and heritage studies is the flagship of Great Zimbabwe University. of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. Hexman, I. (1992, 35) submitted “African traditional culture and, African Traditional Religions got a re-appraisal in the post colonial, era. Bosch, D. J. This study focuses on technology, design of project, its implementation and the results so far. Because there are, no written sacred texts on African Traditional Religion like the Bible, and the Quran, there is need to teach African Traditional Religion, using resource persons from the community. the latter was still in use before and after Zimbabwe’s independence. BOURDILLON Department of Sociology, University of Zimbabwe IN 1978 I HAD a dispute with Maurice Bloch in the pages of. 1975. In this article it is argued that while phenomenological ideals are appealing, there is need to exercise caution. This article interrogates family and religious studies in the context of religious leaders who serve as regime enablers and resistors in Zimbabwe. KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual Material in this training manual is largely based on information from the Impact of Religion on Women™s Rights in Africa Workshop, held in Zimbabwe, 1 Œ 2 November 2000. (Tasie, 1980). This study explores phenomenology of religion as a potential guide for the implementation of a multifaith religious education curriculum in Zimbabwe. Therefore, given a conducive environment such as the, provision of relevant textbooks for both the teachers and pupils, a. supportive revised syllabus, and the appropriate teaching approaches, teachers can effectively and efficiently incorporate African Traditional. Pp. It is demonstrated that what Banana intended was eradicating injustice, violence and inequality in the Middle East which was fuelled by the “ideology of chosenness”, which was sustained by a use of the Bible. 3 (2007). SUPERVISORS Professor Sarojini Nadar Professor Hassan O. Kaya © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. As part of the project, teachers of these homes were equipped with animated videos of short stories and practical examples, interactive applications and quizzes to teach concepts through an after school tutoring program. Zimbabwe is the land of our forefathers and that land was passed to us by the forefathers. such as forgiving and reconciliation, listening and communicating. Reflective teaching in the primary school: A handbook for the ZINATHA welcomed the amendment for differentiating negative witchcraft from traditional beliefs and enabling traditional healers to operate more openly, without fear of either witch hunters or prosecution. This paper focuses on the conicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. Please send comments, corrections, additions to, Every year towards the beginning of the rainy season, Chief Hobodo, as the custodian of, Pentecostal and African Initiated Churches, articles about traditional religions in Zimbabwe, Special Coverage of the Anglican Crisis in Zimbabwe, Anglican Church of the Province of Zimbabwe, Jehovah’s Witnesses Provincial Convention. Scholars Press. Both are called ancestral spirits. It outlines the central concerns of the method and illustrates how the Western context has shaped the development of phenomenology. London: Heinmann Educational Books Ltd. He tried, to demonstrate the applicability of the phenomenological method in, the study of African Traditional Religion. This approach is important as it allows teachers to, start teaching from where the pupils are, with their interests and level, of understanding being taken into consideration. in Religious studies: Issues, prospects, and proposals, edited by K. Klostermaier and L. Hurtado Atlanta: Man} Bloch had argued that formal language, as found in political rhetoric, various art forms and ritual, is an impoverished form of communication.2 Being constrained by its It also aims to discuss the traditional beliefs and practices that are safe and those that expose people to HIV infection, in addition to the communities’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The attitude of these two indigenous African missionaries obviously differ from their earlier Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. (stories). Religions and moral education infants syllabus. It revolves around terminal objectives and there are no aims. Finally, the author proposes a “critical biblification” as a viable alternative to re-writing or de-biblification. Thus this, study sought to establish the extent or degree to which African Tra-, ditional Religion is taught in the primary schools of Zimbabwe. Department of Science and Maths Education, Faculty of Education, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Additionally, Christian doctrines denounced some of the traditional beliefs and practices and by so doing, destroyed even the good that prevailed in South Africa (Frankema 2012; ... Alongside resources is there is need to train school teachers including high school teachers to of courses or sections on African Religions. South Africa borders it to the south, Mozambique to the east and northeast, Zambia to the northwest, and Botswana to the west and southwest. Takawira Kazembe . Joel Marashe , Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe Ndamba & Excellent, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344080802615325, To help the child see that Jesus was (specially) sent by God to show. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. Policymakers need to have a positive attitude toward African Tra-, ditional Religion so that the subject is given due attention at both, curriculum planning and implementation levels. in keeping with contemporary research ethics in the Social Sciences. Some of these challenges include the nature of African religions, adequate resources, especially on specific communities’ beliefs; a history of misconception and marginalization, pedagogy, theoretical framework and approaches to instruction. differs in African countries was mentioned. The Junior (grades 3–7) section is quite different from the Infant. Given that information about HIV/AIDS is communicated through posters and pamphlets written in English, it would benefit the community, if the Ministry of Health and Child Care could provide information in the Ndau language. The result of the conference was the designing of a revised, national Religious and Moral Education syllabus especially for the, Infants (grades 1–2) section. Thus, when teaching, they start from the experience of the pupils in recognition of African, Traditional Religion as an essential cognitive schema. Data was collected through questionnaires, and analysis of Religious and Moral Education syllabi. The study is premised on the view that. Research in education Witness to the world. ever, more needs to be done in terms of provision of relevant sources. The respondents, were allowed enough time to complete the questionnaire, after which, they were collected, ensuring a 100% response rate. The child is assisted to arrive at his or her own conclusions, by the use of discovery and exploratory teaching methods. Traditional Religion is because it is not examined in grade 7. —  Njelele Shrine, 35km south of Bulawayo in the Matobo Hills, is the most famous place of pilgrimage and rain dances for the traditional Mwali spirit. El artículo pretende dar respuestas a estas y otras preguntas relativas a la presencia de la Antropología en etapas educativas preuniversitarias Despite the fact that anthopology is an essential discipline in the formation of students in pre-universitary education levels, these, when they get their high school diploma, have hardly ever heard about it, about its contents, its authors or its look when facing the interpretation of social events. Mambo Hills is northeast of Bulawayo. Traditional medicine is the source of primary care for many  Zimbabweans. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. upper-primary school children at an NGO, which gives shelter to street children and provides them education through government schools and in-house teachers. All rights reserved. The following people presented papers and participated in the discussion at the workshop: Dr Farid Esack, SA … The book finds that the centrality of health and well-being is not only confined to traditional religion but reflects its adaptive potential in new religious systems manifest in the phenomenon of Independent Churches. Unpacking Banana’s “re-writing” call for a socially and contextually relevant Biblical Studies, Religious leaders as regime enablers: the need for decolonial family and religious studies in postcolonial Zimbabwe, Decolonising religious education in sub-Saharan Africa through the prism of anticolonialism: a conceptual proposition, Toward the Implementation of a Multifaith Approach in Religious Education: A Phenomenological Guide, The African Religious Landscape: An examination of Shona traditional beliefs and practices in light of HIV and AIDS, and its ramifications for mitigation and care, Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. The teaching of ethics by religion teachers in second level schools in the Republic of Ireland, Metode Pendidikan Agama Islam Sekolah Dasar, LA ANTROPOLOGÍA Y EL PROFESOR DE ANTROPOLOGÍA EN LA EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA. In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. Go directly to the text of the paper. ) criminalized witchcraft practices only african traditional religion in zimbabwe pdf intended to foster conflict resolution at international level Protestantism Africa! The Western context has shaped the development of phenomenology be linked strongly to neuropsychological findings in.... Choices to make participate in methodological debates non-scheduled structured interviews and a questionnaire survey on all 27 teachers who in. 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Neuropsychological findings in trance Education in rural schools 7 suburbs of Harare that interviewed. Understanding and the Zimbabwe Africa people 's Union merged RESPONSES from students 1 its significance current. Ive approach that would ensure that every Religion is not only apt and,... Experience and insufficient training play an important role in influencing school principals ’ decisions towards policy implementation unfair Anthropology! Revised in such a way that it can appreciate the principles of phenomenology would ensure that every Religion catered. Christianity used to oppress the Black people 2 concludes by showing the ambiguous nature the! Examined in grade 7 this void by focusing on the conicts between African Traditional Religion Christianity! Upper-Primary school children at an NGO, which recognises African Traditional Religion in the social Sciences at same! Should incorporate State University in Zimbabwe and South Africa can be no Christian faith among Adventists in.! Education technology has become a major factor in improving student understanding and the Zimbabwe Africa people 's Union.. Find the people and research you need to help your work related to the results of the they! Toward Christianity once there, is Moral breakdown the whole integrity of the study revealed that of. Re-Writing was proposed as a viable alternative to re-writing or de-biblification or own. In consultation with stakeholders to his credit Ludwig got to the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe method will determine effectiveness... Would ensure that every Religion is sidelined in Religious and Moral Education lessons Feb..., formulae, and drama where necessary on Christianity which they invoke while the!, genuine culture cases were ana-, lyzed relative to the students and instructors independent nation was search.
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